Research

Research has taught us that extensive preparation is the hallmark of a well-managed classroom (Darch & Kame’enui, 2004). Darch and Kame'enui discuss three organizing principles that reflect the learner's perspective of management (2004). The first principle they discuss is that the learner should always be treated with respect (Darach & Kame'enui, 2004). Secondly, every learner has an extraordinary capacity to learn (Darach & Kame'enui, 2004). Final and third principle states that the learner's behavior or performance is always purposeful, strategic, and intelligent (Darach & Kame'enui, 2004). They discuss the three basic organizing principles that reflect the teacher's perspective of management to include that the teacher makes a profound difference in how, what, when, and why students learn, teaching involves creating as many opportunities as possible for successful learning, and effective teaching enhances what the learner already knows and enables the learner to do things that could not be done before (Darach & Kame'enui, 2004).

The implementation guidelines for changing negative behavior into positive, cooperative behavior include using consequences for unacceptable behavior in conjunction with reinforcement (Darach & Kame'enui, 2004). Darach and Kame'enui also discusses implementing consequence strategies calmly and consistently and withdrawing it as soon as possible (2004). The consequence strategies for negative behaviors include verbal reprimands, quiet time, owing-time, response-cost, and time-out from positive reinforcement (Darach & Kame'enui, 2004). (Tonya)

Craig B. Darch and Edward J. Kame'enui. (2004). Instructional Classroom Management: A Proactive Approach to Behavior Management (Second Edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

The following is a link to a practice guide that includes several evidence based strategies for decreasing the incidence of undesirable behavior in elementary classrooms. The guide includes technical information on the studies of each of the strategies, indicating whether the evidence for their efficacy is low, moderate or strong. (Epstein, Atkins, Cullinan, Kutash, & Weaver, 2008)
http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/pdf/practiceguides/behavior_pg_092308.pdf
(Katie)

This four-year study was based on an intense form of behavior therapy, utilizing participants and it will be helpful to teachers who are planning or implementing tiered interventions such as PBS. Students were instructed one-on-one, for brief periods of time and given positive feedback for appropriate responses. The participants received assistance during their play and academic work, as well as helping them assimilate these skills to their world outside of school. The outcomes demonstrated that there was significant improvement in behavior.

WWC Intervention Report. (2010). Lovaas Model of Applied Behavior Analysis. What Works Clearinghouse. Retrieved from ERIC database. (Christine)

Research has indicated a strong correlation between positive behavior strategies and an increase of appropriate behavior as demonstrated in a school-wide positive behavior system. Following the guidelines of a response to intervention tiered system that uses universal strtegies for a majority of students, targeted strategies for more at risk students, and a third tiered for more individual targeted behaviors. The idea is to provide a strong, unified approach within the school that reaches the needs of individual learners. Scott, White, and Algozzine (2009) have conducted a research project that identifies the school wide approach to positive behavior supports that addresses the unified approach within the response to intervention framework. Acott, et al. (2009) call this approach Positive Unified Behavior Support (PUBS) which researched the extent that trained teachers had in the implementation of this unified approach. Within this approach is the idea of implementing proactive approaches rather than reactive approaches. As a result, reserachers found that teachers were more successful with proper training in implementing proactive and unified strategies as determined by the PUBS framework and were better able to appropriately handle behavior problems in the classroom.

Scott, J., White, R., Algozzine, B., & Algozzine, K. (2009). Effects of Positive Unified Behavior Support on Instruction. International Journal on School Disaffection, 6(2), 41-48. Retrieved from ERIC database. (Angie)

Using evidence-based positive support interventions can be the key to an organized and productive classroom with few behavioral disruptions. However, finding evidence-based interventions may prove to be overwhelming. Horner, Sugai & Anderson have outlined six essentials for determining if a practice or intervention is indeed evidence-based. Horners, Sugai & Anderson have used School-Wide Positive Behavior Support in a three-tiered system to help illustrate the six essentials of evidence-based practices. Horner, Sugai & Anderson (2010) state, “the basic message is that all practices should be described thoroughly so implementers know (a) what they look like, (b) where they can be used, (c) who should benefit from them, (d) how to implement them well, (e) what outcomes to expect, and (f) why they should expect them to work”(p. 3). As more schools move toward Positive Behavior Support Interventions the criteria for determination for evidence-based interventions will need to be more clear.

Horner, R., Sugai, G., & Anderson, C. (2010). Examining the Evidence Base for School-Wide Positive Behavior Support. Focus on Exceptional Children, 42(8), 1-14. Retrieved from Education Research Complete database.
(Kathryn)

When working with children on the autism spectrum it is important to identify both repetitive and stereotypical behaviors and disruptive behaviors. Research conducted by Neitzel (2010) has addressed these interfereing behaviors using positive behavior supports through a variety of evidence based practices and intervention strategies. They used a three tiered framework similar to ones used for response to interventions in other behavior support systems. This tiered system acknowledges the needs and intervention specific to children on the autism spectrum. The results of this research has indicated that the use of positive behavior supports in this three tiered system is an effective way to address interfereing behaviors in autistic children.

Neitzel, J. (2010). Positive Behavior Supports for Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Preventing School Failure, 54(4), 247-255. Retrieved from ERIC database. (Angie)

Teachers and support staff are becoming more and more frustrated with the negative impact of student behavior on their classrooms. Sometimes, it is difficult to accomplish academics, due to so many behavior problems, and teachers often focus most of their energy there. While district-wide discipline policies are often in place for public school systems, it may be necessary to establish School-wide Positive Behavior Supports (SWPBS) (Simonsen, B., Sugai, G., Negron, M., 2008). SWPBS is a proactive, tiered approach that allows schools to effectively support student behavior. Each school selects “outcomes, data, practices, and systems that are appropriate and meaningful to the school,” (Simonsen, Sugai, & Negron, 2008). With the implementation of SWPBS, schools usually see a decrease in inappropriate behaviors—which can be measured through the decrease in discipline referrals, suspensions, and expulsions. Unlike many interventions that wait for the student to fail before providing support, SWPBS: a) proactively addresses social behavioral needs of all students; and b) prevents social and academic failure (Simonsen, Sugai, & Negron, 2008). The three-tiered approach provides appropriate interventions for students of all behavioral needs—from very little support (Tier I), to those who might require the use of a behavioral intervention plan (Tier III). A detailed description and practical example of how SWPBS can be implemented is shown in the article “Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports: Primary Systems and Practices,” by Simonsen, Sugai, & Negron (2008). (Kelli)

Simonsen, B., Sugai, G., Negron, M., (2008). Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports: Primary Systems and Practices. Teaching Exceptional Children. 40(6), p. 32-40.